Writer specialising in vampirism, tarot, witchcraft and cookery - so far!
Amateur photographer specialising in food & drink, still life, architectural, gothic and nature photography.
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A few years ago I went on my first Lantern Ghost Tour of a Haunted House. You can read about that adventure at the Altona Homestead, complete with child ghosts and wandering dolls, in A Ghost Of A Fear. A few days ago I went on my second Lantern Ghost Tour of a Haunted House, this time at the Point Cook Homestead.
The Point Cook Homestead is a place that my partner and I have visited many times. We’d enjoy a nice cream tea in the cafe and then wander through the main house, admiring the heritage home. We would then walk the grounds, touch base with the farm animals and take a short walk to the nearby beach. Sadly the homestead has been closed to the public for some time now. Happily it’s open again, but only in the evenings and only for an organised ghost tour!
We chose the latest time available, which was a 10.15pm tour. We sat in our car shortly before the tour was due to start and waited for the gate to open, welcoming us into a home we had previously only seen by day. Like a funeral procession, all the cars drove slowly down the driveway until we reached our destination. We parked under towering trees and waited for our guides.
Our guides arrived and warned us to walk only on the path. Memories of fairy tale warnings of what can happen when you stray from the path swirled in my mind. What was waiting for us in the darkened grounds? Nothing but orb spiders spinning their webs. While a mouthful of spider would be pretty terrifying, I was thinking of much scarier things!
Our first stop was the stables which were once renowned for their racehorses. I wasn’t too interested in this part of the estate but dutifully wandered through with the tour. All I really wanted to do was go into the main house. I couldn’t wait to see what it looked like at night!
Filled with memories of the antique splendour contained within, I eagerly entered the home. I stood and stared, horrified. It was virtually empty. Most of the furniture was gone. There was no piano, gramophone or old sewing machine. The antique dolls, scary yet compelling, were no longer there. The beautiful heritage home had lost all its spirit and its spirits. I couldn’t imagine ghosts wanting to be here. The house was dead, haunted only by the memories of what once was.
Our guides brought out dowsing rods to commune with the ghosts they say still haunt the homestead. They are mostly child ghosts. A young girl ghost “played” with the dowsing rods as a connection to the spirit world was made. I wasn’t scared. I was sad. I really wish they had left a few dolls there for the ghost children to play with.
Undeterred I’ve booked a few more ghost tours this year including another stately home and a morgue. I’m getting a little scared thinking about the morgue.
This week we say farewell to the Year of the Yang Metal Rat and welcome to the Year of the Yin Metal Ox.
To celebrate the incoming Year of the Ox, I want to briefly explore the lesser known animal attributes we are born with in our Chinese Zodiac year. While most of us know about our year of birth animal, there is also a month of birth animal, day of birth animal and hour of birth animal.
Year of Birth Animal Your year of birth animal is your Outer Animal. It is the most important influence and represents what you show to the world. This animal corresponds to the sun sign in Western astrology.
Month of Birth Animal Your month of birth animal is your Inner Animal. It symbolises the parts of you that you keep to yourself and rarely share with others.
Day of Birth Animal Your day of birth animal is your True Animal. It symbolises what you will become. As there are only seven days but twelve animals, some days have more than one animal guardian. So depending on what day you were born, you may have one, two or three animals to explore.
Hour of Birth Animal Your hour of birth animal is your Secret Animal. It represents who you really are. Your hour animal corresponds to the ascendent in Western astrology.
Bram and the Year of the Rat As part of my farewell to the Year of the Rat, I wanted to explore the animal menagerie of Bram Stoker, my favourite author. Stoker died on Saturday, 20th April 1912 in the Year of the Water Rat. Considering the body of work Bram left behind, and because the outgoing year is a Rat year, I’m going to briefly explore the animal influences of Bram’s death year (as distinct from the traditional birth year). In particular, I’m going to see how they are reflected in his most celebrated work – Dracula. I think Bram would like that.
Bram’s Death Year Animal Bram died in 1912 in the Year of the Rat making his Outer Animal the Rat. When I started looking for rat action in Dracula, I was sure I would find these critters making mischief on the Demeter, the ship that brings Dracula to England. Then I remembered the scenes I was thinking of were actually from Dracula movies and not from the book. In fact the movies have had a lot of fun with Stoker’s rats, which highlights their importance as an Outer Animal.
The Demeter may be free of rats in Dracula, but happily the rest of the novel isn’t! Rats are one of the animals that Dracula uses to do his bidding. When the vampire hunters ransack one of his homes, he sends an army of rats to attack them. And who can forget Renfield’s creepy desire for the lives of rats? When Renfield is reluctant to invite Dracula into the asylum, Dracula summons an army of rats to tempt him. Renfield’s crazed line “Rats, rats, rats!” is immortalised in horror history. But it’s not just Dracula that showcases rats. Bram also wrote two chilling short stories that feature rats – The Judge’s House and The Burial of the Rats.
The Judge’s House is a supernatural tale about a student who dismisses the local superstitions about the home of a former hanging judge and decides to rent it. Although the house is infested with rats, he thinks he has found the perfect place. He comes to realise his mistake when he is visited by the Rat King! The Burial of the Rats is not a supernatural terror but rather a disturbing story of an Englishman visiting Paris who takes a stroll down the wild side of town, all under the watchful gaze of hungry rats. As the animal that represents an important influence in Bram’s work, the Rat seems pretty spot-on.
Bram’s Death Month Animal Bram died in the month of April, making his Inner Animal the Dragon. The presence of dragons in Dracula is not obvious, which makes the dragon a perfect Inner Animal. There are two interesting ways dragons make their presence known in Dracula.
The first dragon reference is in the name Dracula. Dracula’s father was called Dracul as he was a member of the Order of the Dragon. Dracula means “son of Dracul”, essentially Dracula is the son of the Dragon. In the novel, Dracula and Jonathan spend many evenings discussing Transylvanian history and Dracula’s lineage. During these talks Dracula never reveals what his name means. This makes sense, as it would then be obvious who and what he is. This also means that the reader would only know the dragon connection if they have prior knowledge of the Dracula legend, or if they research the name afterwards. Dracula (and Stoker) certainly keep this aspect of his Inner Animal very hidden.
The second dragon reference is in relation to lizards. Although the name dragon isn’t used, some lizards are also called dragons. When Jonathan sees Dracula climbing down the castle wall, face first, he describes Dracula as moving like a lizard. Significantly, it is this act that finally forces Jonathan to acknowledge that Dracula is a supernatural creature. Dracula has tried to hide his supernatural side from Jonathan, but thanks to his lizard walk, his Inner Animal has been revealed.
Bram’s Death Day Animals The day of Bram’s death is Saturday. Saturday is one of the days that has three animal guardians. Bram’s True Animals are the Ox, Tiger and Rooster. I must say I had fun trying to find references for oxen, tigers and roosters in Dracula.The ox is not mentioned in Dracula but cows are. Luckily the Chinese term for ox generally refers to cows, bulls and other members of the bovine family. Tigers are mentioned a few times as are roosters or cocks. These animal references are very significant when explored as True Animals. One of the key themes they highlight is that of the hunter becoming the hunted, which is exactly what Dracula becomes.
The Rooster The rooster makes an appearance in Dracula during Jonathan’s stay at Castle Dracula. The relationship between Jonathan and Dracula is marked by the crow of a cock heralding sunrise. Although Dracula can walk about during the day, he treats the call of the rooster seriously. Dracula often ends his discussions with Jonathan when he hears the cock crow. The rooster shows us that although Dracula is a powerful supernatural being, there are some natural laws that he must obey. It is these these laws that are his weakness and will be exploited by his enemies.
The Tiger A key reference to tigers is when the vampire hunters discuss the reasons why they should hunt down Dracula, even though he has left England. Van Helsing argues that Dracula is like a bloodthirsty tiger who will return again and again unless he is vanquished. The hunt is on!
The Ox The cow has a fascinating part to play in the hunting of Dracula. While Dracula tries to escape the vampire hunters, they use the bond he has forged with Mina to track him. In a trance, Mina connects with Dracula and, among other things, she hears cows lowing. With this information they realise that Dracula is travelling on a river. They eventually catch him and dispatch him. Or do they?
Bram’s Death Hour Animal I’m not sure if anyone knows what time Bram Stoker died, so his Secret Animal remains a secret. As a Scorpio, I think Bram will be very happy to take some of his secrets to his grave and beyond!
Unleash Your Inner Animals Want to find your own animal menagerie? Use the charts below to help you discover new animals in your zodiac. You could have the same animal in all aspects, or you could have a combination of animal influences to play with.
Year Animal The twelve animals of the Chinese zodiac follow a twelve year cycle. A new cycle began with the Year of Rat in 2020 and continues in 2021 with the Year of the Ox followed by the Year of the Tiger, Year of the Rabbit, Year of the Dragon, Year of the Snake, Year of the Horse, Year of the Sheep/Goat, Year of the Monkey, Year of the Rooster, Year of the Dog and finally the Year of the Pig. If you were born in the month of January or February you have to check to see if your animal is the one for the preceding year as the new year begins and the animal changes sometime in those two months.
Month Animal December 7th to January 5th – Rat January 6th to February 3rd – Ox February 4th to March 5th – Tiger March 6th to April 4th – Rabbit April 5th to May 4th – Dragon May 5th to June 5th – Snake June 6th to July 6th – Horse July 7th to August 6th – Sheep/Goat August 7th to September 7th – Monkey September 8th to October 7th – Rooster October 8th to November 6th – Dog November 7th to December 6th – Pig
Day Animal Monday – Sheep Tuesday – Dragon Wednesday – Horse Thursday – Rat, Pig Friday – Rabbit, Snake, Dog Saturday – Ox, Tiger, Rooster Sunday – Monkey
Hour Animal 11pm to 12.59am – Rat 1am to 2.59am – Ox 3am to 4.59am – Tiger 5am to 6.59am – Rabbit 7am to 8.59am – Dragon 9am to 10.59am – Snake 11am to 12.59pm – Horse 1pm to 2.59pm – Sheep/Goat 3pm to 4.59pm – Monkey 5pm to 6.59pm – Rooster 7pm to 8.59pm – Dog 9pm to 10.59pm – Pig
Lammas marks the halfway point between the Summer Solstice and the Autumn Equinox. It is the first of the Harvest Festivals and is usually celebrated in the Southern Hemisphere on February 1st. This year I decided to get into the spirit of Lammas by exploring Corn Dollies.
Corn Dollies are traditionally made for Lammas. They are made from a variety of grains and crafted into an assortment of different shapes. Corn Dollies can be used as good luck charms or as a home for the Spirit of the Grain.
In ancient Pagan culture, the Spirit of the Grain was believed to live in the crops. When the crops were harvested, the Grain Spirit was left homeless. A Corn Dolly was made from the last sheafs of the harvest and offered as a winter home for the Grain Spirit. When the new planting season arrived, the Corn Dolly would be ploughed back into the earth so the Grain Spirit could return to its home amongst the crops. If I can get my crafting act together, I may make a Corn Dolly for next Lammas.
For this Lammas I used my culinary skills to make edible Cornbread Dollies. I usually make some type of cornbread for Lammas, so this year I thought I would make sweet cornbread that could be cut into shapes using cookie cutters. In honour of the Grain Spirit, I used gingerbread women and men cookie cutters to make little corn people. They are too cute to eat. Well almost! 🙂
Special Equipment Gingerbread women and men cookie cutters
Ingredients 1 cup cornmeal 1 cup flour 1 teaspoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon sea salt 2 eggs 1/4 cup honey 60g unsalted butter, melted and lightly cooled 1 cup buttermilk
Instructions Preheat oven to 200C /400F. Line a baking pan with baking paper. (I use a 18cmx32cm / 7.5”x13” sized pan). Mix together the flour, cornmeal, baking powder and salt in a medium sized bowl. In a separate bowl, beat together the eggs and honey until combined. Add the melted butter and buttermilk and beat until combined. Stir the wet ingredients into the dry ingredients until just combined. Pour into prepared pan. Bake for 30 – 35 minutes or until firm and golden. Allow to cool slightly before cutting into shapes with your gingerbread people cookie cutters. If you don’t have gingerbread cookie cutters you can use a knife to cut into shapes.
When my 50th Anniversary Edition of Traditional Macedonian Recipes arrived, I couldn’t wait to to see what tasty offerings it contained. I was happy to see some familiar treats like Chicken and Baked Rice (Kokoshka Sus Oris), Egg Custard Banista (Mletchneek) and Lenten Crepes with Garlic Sauce (Posnee Peetoolee Sus Tulchen Luk). These recipes brought back happy memories and took me on a culinary journey through my childhood.
Traditional Macedonian Recipes was originally published in 1969 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada by the St. George’s Macedono-Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church and Ladies’ Section Mara Buneva. I was intrigued by who Mara Buneva was and, after a quick search, I discovered a female revolutionary who is as fascinating and divisive as the Balkans themselves.
Mara Buneva was a Macedonian Bulgarian revolutionary. She was born in 1902 in Tetovo which was then a Vilayet of Kosovo in the Ottoman Empire and is now part of North Macedonia. After the Serbian annexation of Tetovo, Buneva moved to Bulgaria. She studied at Sofia University and married a Bulgarian officer. They divorced in 1926. Buneva then joined the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) in Sofia.
In 1927 she returned to Skopje and opened a store. When members of the Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization were arrested and sentenced to long-term imprisonment, IMRO ordered the execution of Serbian official, Velimir Prelić.
On January 13th, 1928, (ironically Friday the 13th), Mara Buneva assassinated Velimir Prelić. After shooting Prelić, Buneva committed suicide by shooting herself. Prelić died a few days later in hospital. Buneva was buried by Serbian police in an unknown place.
Buneva is viewed by some as a traitor and terrorist while others celebrate her as a heroine and martyr, fighting for the freedom of Macedonia. Attempts to place a commemorative plaque at the place where she died have failed as they are destroyed not long after they are erected. I don’t know if there is one there now, however, there is a wax figure of Buneva in the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle.
While I’ve only explored the tip of the iceberg in relation to the controversies and legacies surrounding Mara Buneva, it’s a journey I’m eager to pursue. And speaking of icebergs, Buneva Point in Antarctica is named after Mara Buneva.
To celebrate my discovery of another controversial revolutionary woman, I thought I would make one of the cakes from Traditional Macedonian Recipes. To honour Mara Buneva’s deathiversary, I’ve chosen the Marmalade Cake, which is a special Lenten recipe and contains no fats, dairy or eggs. Thankfully it contains lots of flavour!
Ingredients 1/2 cup oil (I used extra virgin olive oil) 1 cup marmalade 1 cup water 1/2 cup walnuts, chopped zest of 1 orange 2 cups plain flour 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon cloves 1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) 1/2 teaspoon salt
Instructions Preheat oven to 180C / 350F. Line a 20cm (8inch) square baking pan with baking paper. Mix together the oil, marmalade, water, walnuts and orange peel in a bowl. Sift in the dry ingredients. Mix until combined. Pour into prepared pan. Bake for 35-40 minutes or until a skewer inserted into the centre comes out clean. Allow to cool in the pan for a few minutes before removing and cutting into squares. Can be eaten warm or cold.
Monday December 21st is the Summer Solstice in Australia. It’s the longest day of the year and the midpoint between Beltane and Lammas. The Summer Solstice is a time of magic and mystery, a time when the veils between the worlds are thin. It is a time to celebrate summer, life and love.
After the solstice, the days start to get shorter but there are still plenty of long, hot days and nights ahead of us.
To cool down during the longest day of the year, you can make a lovely Summer Solstice drink by steeping strawberries and basil in wine. Play around with the proportions to fit your taste. You can also adapt the recipe to make a smaller or larger batch.
This wine can also be served for the Winter Solstice, as red and green are the colours of Yule.
Strawberry and Basil Wine
Ingredients 2 cups strawberries, hulled and sliced lengthwise a sprig or two of basil 3 cups white wine 2 cups soda water
Instructions Place the strawberries and basil in a large pitcher or jug. Pour in the wine. Cover and refrigerate for 1 hour. Pour in the soda water just before serving.
It’s been a tough year and it might be about to get tougher. Krampus Night is almost here! On this night nice children will be rewarded and naughty children will be well and truly punished.
Krampus Night is celebrated on December 5th, the eve of Saint Nicholas Day. In fact, St Nick and Krampus usually team up for the night and do a type of “good Santa bad Santa” routine. St Nick rewards good children, but naughty children are handed over to Krampus for punishment. Krampus may give a naughty child a lump of coal, beat them with sticks or stuff them in a sack. No-one knows what happens to the children Krampus stuffs in his sack, but I’m assuming it’s not something Christmassy.
Adults might think they escape punishment on Krampus Night, but don’t worry, the Icelandic Yule Cat is on its way. It’s ready to strip lazy adults of their possessions, their children and possibly their lives. To find out how to avoid the wrath of Jólakötturinn, click to my previous post Kitty Claws Is Coming To Town! It also includes a recipe for Creamy Catnip Cupcakes for extra feline appeasement.
Fairy Bread is an Australian treat, comprised of buttered white bread sprinkled with hundreds and thousands. There is no real recipe for this sweet but there are a few non-binding rules. The bread should be sliced white bread, the spread can be butter or margarine, and the sprinkles must be round, coloured hundreds and thousands and not the rod shaped ones. (Hundreds and thousands are also known as nonpareils sprinkles). Fairy Bread is usually sliced into triangles with the crust left on.
Fairy Bread was first mentioned in a 1920’s Hobart newspaper article which reported children eating it at a party. The creation of Fairy Bread may have been inspired by a Robert Louis Stevenson’s poem called “Fairy Bread” published in A Child’s Garden of Verses in 1885.
“Fairy Bread” Come up here, O dusty feet! Here is fairy bread to eat. Here in my retiring room, Children, you may dine On the golden smell of broom And the shade of pine; And when you have eaten well, Fairy stories hear and tell.
Normally I’m a bit of a rebel and love to play around with recipes, but in the case of Fairy Bread, I’m a traditionalist! If you really don’t like crusts, I think cutting them off is fine. I also think cutting or rolling the bread into creative shapes is an acceptable tweak and a way to get creative with a basic, but very tasty, recipe. 🙂
I’ve recently discovered a less messy way to get the hundreds and thousands onto the bread. Instead of covering the buttered bread with the hundreds and thousands, which usually leads to the round, sugary balls sliding off the bread and rolling all over the kitchen, pour the hundreds and thousands onto a plate and press the bread butter side down into the hundreds and thousands. This is particularly helpful if you’ve cut your bread into unusual shapes.
My favourite gothic store, Beserk, often adds little surprises in your parcel when you order online. When I opened my latest package, I was rapt to find a Fortune Cookie among my ghoulish purchases.
At first I assumed it was a black Misfortune Cookie from Pechkeks, which come individually or in a box of 13. As this Friday is Friday the 13th, I thought it would be a fortuitous day to open a Misfortune Cookie.
My only worry was that my cookie was purple and not black. As I took a closer look, I realised it wasn’t a Misfortune Cookie but actually a Beserk Halloween Fortune Cookie. I was momentarily disappointed as I was looking forward to seeing what my misfortunate message would be.
My happiness returned when I realised that a Halloween Fortune Cookie could also contain a misfortunate message! With a sense of excitement and some dread, I cracked open my Fortune Cookie on the morning of Friday the 13th.
Let the Haunting begin!
The perfect drink to have with one of these cookies is a strong cup of Turkish coffee. You’ll find my recipe for Turkish coffee, and tips on how to read your coffee cup, on my previous post Cold Nights And Warm Fortunes.
November 8th is Bram Stoker’s birthday. As I thought about Bram and his special day, I was drawn to the concept of birthstones and the magical attributes of gems.
A birthstone is a gemstone that represents an aspect of a person’s birthday. When people choose a birthstone, they usually choose one associated with their birth month. However, you can also choose birthstones associated with the day you were born or your hour of birth. The birthstone I was most interested in exploring for Bram was the one associated with his star sign, which is Scorpio.
During my research I discovered there was no consensus about which gems represented Scorpio. I also discovered that many of the gems chosen for Scorpio just didn’t feel right to me. That changed when I read Astrology for Wellness: Star Sign Guides for Body, Mind & Spirit Vitality by Monte Farber and Amy Zerner. They chose Obsidian for Scorpio with Onyx, Ruby and Black Opal as added extras. For me, these gems sing with the essence of Scorpio. These dark and gothic gems inspired me to come up with my own choice for a birthstone for Bram Stoker that symbolises both Scorpio and the dark world of Stoker’s most famous creation, Dracula. The gemstone I have chosen is Jet, in particular, Whitby Jet.
Jet is an organic gemstone which is naturally formed from fossilised wood. It is such a beautiful and intense black colour that it inspired the terms “jet black” and “black as jet.” Jet is smooth, lightweight and can be polished to such a high lustre it can be used as a mirror.
Jet was used in Roman Britain to make jewellery such as hair pins, pendants, necklaces, bracelets and rings. The Romans also made amulets and talismans out of Jet as they believed it contained magical protective properties and could ward off the evil eye. Pliny the Elder believed that Jet could drive away snakes.
Whitby Jet became popular during the Victorian Era. The new railways brought tourists to Whitby which created a demand for Whitby Jet souvenirs. Whitby Jet was also showcased at the Great Exhibition in 1851. Whitby Jet jewellery became fashionable when Queen Victoria wore Whitby Jet jewellery as part of her mourning dress.
Not only is Whitby Jet associated with the Victorian Era and mourning, but Whitby is the place where Dracula first lands in England. As a Victorian author and creator of the world’s most famous vampire, Whitby Jet is the perfect birthstone for Bram Stoker.
With my mind on gems, I knew exactly what I would make for Bram’s birthday – gem scones. These delightful treats are not actually scones but light little cakes. Gem scones are traditionally baked in cast iron tins called gem irons but shallow patty pans are good substitutes. They are great served with butter, cream and your favourite jam or preserve. I’m using blackberry jam to reflect the black gemstones associated with Scorpio.
Ingredients 1 cup plain flour 1 + 1/2 teaspoons baking powder pinch of sea salt 2 tablespoons caster sugar 20g unsalted butter, melted 1 egg 1/2 cup milk
for serving butter jam cream
Instructions Preheat oven to 200C / 400F. Grease your gem iron or patty pan and heat in the oven. Mix together all the ingredients in a bowl until they form a slightly runny batter. Carefully remove muffin tin from the oven. Dollop batter into the holes, filling each about 3/4 full. Bake for 7 to 10 minutes or until springy to the touch. Serve warm or cold.
On October 31st, many around the world will be celebrating Halloween, but if you’re a Pagan in the Southern Hemisphere, you may be celebrating Beltane instead.
Both Halloween and Beltane are seasonal festivals. Halloween is a harvest festival signifying the beginning of winter, while Beltane is a spring celebration and heralds the coming summer. I’m usually partial to celebrating Halloween in April and October, but this year I am really feeling the Beltane spirit.
My home state of Victorian is coming out of a very long, dark winter. It wasn’t our weather, but the global pandemic. Victoria experienced a deadly second wave but after a series of restrictions, lockdowns and an overnight curfew, we managed to beat the virus down to manageable levels. We are now opening up in sensible stages and celebrating our victories. Our joyous return to the world of light and life is the essence of Beltane. As always, my Beltane festivities will include a touch of Halloween.
At Beltane, like Halloween, the veil between the worlds is thin. Communication with the spirit world is easier on these nights.
One way of connecting wth the spirit realm is through the ancient art of divination. There are many forms of divination, but scrying is one of the most popular for Halloween. Scrying is the art of looking into a reflective surface for messages. There is no consensus or restriction on what these reflective surfaces should be. Gazing into water, mirrors, glass, crystals, stones, clouds, smoke and fire are common forms of scrying. Staring into black surfaces, darkness or the night sky are also perfect ways to scry on Halloween in particular.
This Beltane/Halloween falls on a Full Moon in Taurus. The luminescent Full Moon is a great scrying tool and one that I love. As a child I would often gaze at the Full Moon, delighting in its beauty and seeing images reflected on its silvery surface. I am looking forward to doing some serious moon gazing this weekend. 🙂
For my Beltane recipe I have chosen a bowl of soup. Not only is it a soulful bowl of comfort and contentment, it’s also a great scrying tool. A bowl filled with water is a classic divination vessel but replacing the water with a flavoursome soup is a tasty tweak I could’t resist. For an added divination twist I’ve used alphabet pasta. Not only can you scry for images in the soup but you can look for messages scribed in pasta!
Alphabet Soup For The Scrying Soul
Ingredients 1 cup chicken stock* 1/2 cup water 1/3 cup alphabet pasta 1 tablespoon unsalted butter 1 tablespoon grated parmesan cheese 1 teaspoon chopped chives
Instructions Bring the chicken stock and water to a boil. Add the pasta and cook following the instructions on the packet. Remove pasta from the heat and stir in the butter. Pour into a bowl or bowls and top with cheese and chives.
*for a vegetarian version replace the chicken stock with vegetable stock